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Particle Simulation of Alveolar Bone Regeneration and Angiogenesis using platelet-rich plasma (PRP)
EAO Online Library. Matsuo M. Oct 9, 2018; 232617; P-BR-68
Masato Matsuo
Masato Matsuo
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Abstract
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Dental implants are a major treatment option in modern dentistry. However, it is difficult to insert successfully into the narrow width and the low height of the jawbone. Application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is extensively used in dental bone regeneration therapy, as it contains many growth factors. These factors are thought to accelerate the regrowth of blood vessels and bone.To examine the relationship between the bone formation and vascular changes, a vascular resin cast model was examined. And angiogenesis model and reaction-diffusion model are constructed and calculated at the same time by computed Particle Simulation as the coupled analysis model of bone formation. All the animal experiments were conducted in compliance with the protocol which was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (Permit Number 16045).The mandibular premolars of beagle dogs were extracted. PRP was made and applied to one side of the dentition, with the other side remaining untreated as a control. Microvascular resin injection was performed from maxillary artery after14, 30, and 90 days. The soft tissue was digested with proteinase solution. These specimens were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The computational domain was set to a cube of 1mm3 to eliminate the influence of boundaries from captured SEM images. Ninety particles were arranged in various directions+ therefore, a total of 729,000 particles covered the entire area. Time step width was set to 500 steps in a day. After 14days, Blood vessels and newly formed bone were regenerated along the pre-existing alveolar bone. In the center of the socket bone formation was not occured in Control group . In the PRP Group, Blood vessels and newly formed bone were regenerated in the socket, including the center portion of the socket. After 30days in the control] Sockets were filled with porous newly formed bone, which was observed near blood vessels. In the PRP group, Remarkable amounts of porous newly formed bone were seen in the sockets. Bone trabeculae and bone marrow vessels began to form. After 90 days in control group, Normal - like bone structure was achieved. Bone trabeculae and bone marrow vessels was observed in this period. Regenerated thick bone trabeculae and networks of blood vessels in the bone marrow appeared in PRP group. From the results of numerical analysis and experiment, PRP is supposed to promote angiogenesis and bone regeneration.Major factors of bone regeneration were modeled and analyzed in this study. In the angiogenesis model, blood vessels grew from the starting points and covered the entire area of the vessels. In the bone formation analysis model, which is affected by mechanical factors. Taken together with our observations, these results suggest that the most prominent benefits of PRP use are safety and acceleration of vascularization and bone formation.
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