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Argon Plasma treatment affects early biological responses to graft material surfaces- an in vitro comparative study.
EAO Online Library. Federico M. Oct 9, 2018; 232586
Mussano Federico
Mussano Federico
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Enhancement of the bio-reactivity of graft materials to bone forming cells and proteins is the ideal aim in the regenerative material research field.**From a physic-chemical standpoint, Argon plasma treatment (PAT) and ultraviolet irradiation (UV) were demonstrated to increase the titanium surface energy.This in vitro study aimed to test the effect of a PAT and UV on graft materials assessing surface topography, osteoblasts growth and cell viability.****Synthetic hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA), Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), cancellous and cortical animal bone matrices (CaBM, CoBM) were used as graft samples representing commonly used classes of graft materials. Sixty-six serially numbered disks of 10mm in diameter were used for each graft material and randomly divided into three groups- test 1 (PAT), test 2 (UV) and control (absence of treatment) groups.**Six samples underwent topographic analysis using SEM pre- and post-treatments to evaluate any eventual topographic difference. Additionally, cell adhesion (using two human osteoblast models (MG63, Saos-2) in a bio-reactor was analyzed on test and control samples. Cell proliferation was analyzed after 72h.**Finally, inflammatory reaction of any treatment was analyzed using human macrophages viability (cell line U-937). Due to the nonparametric nature of the data collected, differences between groups were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney test (p value<0.05)Topographic analysis showed that, due to the manufacturing modalities, Mg-HA and BCP disks have a flat morphology, while BM samples are extremely porous and characterized by high roughness. Post-treatment analysis failed to highlight any significant visible difference. **At the early stage, Plasma treatment significantly increased the cell adhesion on all different grafts while UV failed to show any significant increase (Fig 1).**After 72h, this phenomenon disappeared due to the saturation effect (Fig 2).**Viability test showed no differences in terms of macrophage adhesion (Fig 3).Within the limitations of this study, data reported confirmed that non-atmospheric plasma of Argon treatment increased cell adhesion on all classes of graft materials in a similar extent without any negative inflammatory effect. **These results might clinically imply the use of Plasma of argon to enhance the reactivity of graft materials when used in guided bone regenerative procedures.
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